Penetrant testing (PT) is one of the most widely used nondestructive testing methods for the detection of surface discontinuities in nonporous solid materials. It is almost certainly the most commonly used surface NDT method today because it can be applied to virtually any magnetic or nonmagnetic material. PT provides industry with a wide range of sensitivities and techniques that make it especially adaptable to a broad range of sizes and shapes. It is extremely useful for examinations that are conducted in remote field locations, since it is extremely portable. The method is also very appropriate in a production type environment where many smaller parts can be processed in a relatively short period of time.
Magnetic particle testing (MT) is a nondestructive testing (NDT) method for detecting discontinuities that are primarily linear and located at or near the surface of ferromagnetic components and structures. MT is governed by the laws of magnetism and is therefore restricted to the inspection of materials that can support magnetic flux line. Metals can be classified as ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, or diamagnetic.
X-ray sources, Gamma ray sources, gamma ray camera protectors, film holders, lead screens, film processing equipment, film viewers, exposure facilities, radiation monitoring equipment.
Ultrasonic Inspection is one of the NDT methods to find out the condition of elastic materials (metals and few non – metals) by means of injecting mechanical vibrations into the materials. This method is capable of detecting surface, subsurface and internal discontinuities on materials. Ultrasonic waves are the sound waves having the frequency of above 20,000 C/S which is inaudible to the human ears. Ultrasonic waves are sent through materials by means of transducers and if there is any discontinuity in the path of its propagation, the material would change or modify the waves that can be viewed in the form of indication, through testing system. The theory of ultrasonic propagation is exactly the same as that of audible sound. It obeys the principle of optics. The ultrasonic method is used on processed materials, finished components and for in-service inspection on parts and assemblies. Ultrasonic waves can penetrate through several meters in to the material. The waves can be propagated through liquids, solids and gases.