Questions for Radiographic Testing – General

Questions for Radiographic Testing – General

1) Which of the following statements should be true to achieve the highest level of radiographic sharpness (definition)?

(a)       The focal spot should be as small as practicable

(b)       The focal spot to test piece distance should be as large as practicable

(c)       The film to test piece distance should be as small as practicable

(d)       All of the above

2) Which of the following correctly expresses the inverse square law if I1=dose rate nearest source, I2=dose rate furthest from the source, D1=distance nearest to source and D2=distance furthest from the source:

(a)     I1/I2 = (D1)²/(D2)²

(b)       (I1)²/(I2)² = D1/D2

(c)       I1/I2 = (D2)²/(D1)²

(d)       (I1)²/(I2)² = D2/D1

3) Which of the following types of radiation is particulate?

(a)       X

(b)       Gamma

(c)       Alpha

(d)       None of the above

4) An effect of scattered radiation is to:

(a)       Decrease required exposure time

(b)       Diminish contrast, detail and clarity of radiographic image

(c)       Decrease film density

(d)       All of the above

5) The difference in densities seen on a radiograph due to section changes in an item is:

(a)       Film contrast

(b)       Radiographic contrast

(c)       Subject contrast

(d)       Radiographic sensitivity

6) Which type of film would exhibit the coarsest grain?

(a)       Slow

(b)       Medium

(c)       Fast

(d)       No difference in the grain sizes

7) The penetrating power of an X-ray machine is indicated by or mostly dependent on:

(a)       Mill amperage

(b)       Tube voltage

(c)       Filament current

(d)       Anode current

8) X-ray use for ……………………..defects in weld and body but with this method we cannot find the …………….. in volume.

(a)     Surface, scratch

(b)     Subsurface, dent

(c)     Volumetric, lamination

(d)     Volumetric, inclusion

9) A plot of film density versus log of relative exposure is called:

(a)       An H&D curve

(b)       A sensitometric curve

(c)       A characteristic curve

(d)       All of the above

10)  The most common material used for targets in X ray tubes is:

(a)       Tungsten

(b)       Copper

(c)       Silver

(d)       Beryllium

11) A dark crescent shaped spot, clearly in the base metal adjacent to a weld would probably be:

(a)       Burn through

(b)       Film crimp mark

(c)       A crack

(d)       A water spot on the film

12) Which of the following are potential sources of scattered radiation?

(a)       Test piece

(b)       Cassette

(c)       Floor

(d)       All of the above

13) If the required exposure time for a 2220 GBq (60 curie) Ir-192 source is 2 minutes, what exposure time would be required at 1110 GBq (30 curie) source:

(a)       2/3 minutes

(b)       60 minutes

(c)       2 minutes

(d)       4 minutes

14) An advantage of a larger grain film is:

(a)       It has higher speed

(b)       It has better definition

(c)       It has lower speed

(d)     None of the above

15) The density difference displayed from one area of a film radiograph to another is called:

(a)       Subject contrast

(b)       Radiographic contrast

(c)       Film contrast

(d)       Film latitude

16)The voltage and waveform applied to the x-ray tube by a high voltage transformer primarily determines the:

(a) quantity of radiation

(b) duration of exposure

(c) penetrating ability

(d) x-ray beam divergence

17) Lead foil direct contact with X-ray film:

(a) intensifies the scatter radiation more than the primary radiation

(b) decrease the contrast the radiographic image

(c) intensifies the primary radiation more than the scatter radiation

(d) none of the above

18) Primary radiation which strikes a film holder or cassette through a thin portion of the specimen will cause scattering into the shadows of the adjacent thicker portions producing and effect called:

(a) radiation imaging

(b) spotting

(c) undercut

(d) unsharpness

19)The three main steps in processing the x-ray film:

(a) developing, washing, fixing and stop bath

(b) developing, stop bath, fixer and washing

(c) developing, fixer, stop bath and washing

(d) stop bath, developing, fixer and washing

20) Mottled film may result from:

(a)       Inadequate agitation of the film during development

(b)       Inadequate water rinse during processing

(c)       Using exhausted stop bath solution

(d)       Any of the above

21) Which of the following is an advantage of X ray over gamma ray sources for radiography?

(a)       Portability

(b)       Required maintenance

(c)       Variable radiation energy

(d)       All of the above

22) The basic purpose of a penetrameter is to:

(a)       Indicate quality of the radiographic technique

(b)       Indicate the smallest discontinuity which can be shown by the radiographic technique being used

(c)       Serve as a comparison standard for evaluating discontinuity size

(d)       All of the above

23) X-ray intensity is largely depend on:

(a)       voltage

(b)       current

(c)       thickness

(d)       all of the above

24)For the best results when manual processing film, solutions should be maintained within a temperature range of:

(a)       18-24°C (65-75°F)

(b)       24-29°C (75-85°F)

(c)       65-75°C (149-167°F)

(d)       75-85°C (167-185°F)

25) The velocity of electron striking the target in an X-ray is a function of the:

(a)       atomic number of the cathode material

(b)       atomic number of the filament material

(c)       voltage different between the cathode and anode

(d)       current flow in the rectifier circuit.

26) The primary form of energy conversion when electrons strike a target in an x-ray tube result in the production of:

(a)       primary x-rays

(b)       secondary x-rays

(c)       short wavelength x-rays

(d)       heat

27) An exposed radiographic film which transmits 1% of the light incident on it has what density:

(a)       1.0

(b)       2.0

(c)       99.0

(d)       0.5

28) If the radiation intensity is 5 Gy/h (500 R/h) at a distance of 152.4 cm (5 feet) from a source, what is the intensity at 1524 cm (50 feet)?

(a)       0.5 Gy/h (50 R/h)

(b)       1.0 Gy/h (100 R/h)

(c)       0.1 Gy/h (10 R/h)

(d)       0.05 Gy/h (5 R/h)

29) Most significant difference in two X ray beams produced at different mA settings is:

(a)       Penetrating power

(b)       Wavelength distribution

(c)       X ray quality

(d)       Beam intensity

30) Which of the following would be considered a film artifact?

(a)       Excessive film density

(b)       Insufficient film density

(c)       Insufficient definition (penetrameter holes)

(d)       Static marks

31) Natural discontinuities comparable in size to the penetrameter holes shown on a radiograph may not be detected because:

(a)       Natural discontinuities may contain less dense material than the penetrameter holes

(b)       Natural discontinuities may be thicker than the penetrameter holes

(c)       Natural discontinuities do not necessarily have as sharp edges as the penetrameter holes

(d)       All of the above

32) A test piece with large differences in thickness would have:

(a)       High film contrast

(b)       High subject contrast

(c)       Low subject contrast

(d)       Low film contrast

33) If the required X ray exposure time for a 225 kV, 5 mA exposure is 3 minutes, approximately what exposure time would be required at 10 mA?

(a)       1/2 minute

(b)       1 minute

(c)       1.5 minutes

(d)       3 minutes

34) Unacceptable radiographic film quality would be indicated by:

(a)       Artifacts of known origin in the film’s area of interest

(b)       Use of a smaller penetrameter than required

(c)       H & D density less than 2.0

(d)       All of the above

35) Which of the following welding discontinuities would be most difficult to image radiographically:

(a)       Porosity

(b)       Lack of side wall fusion

(c)       Undercut

(d)       Slag inclusions

36) What governs the penetrating power of an X ray beam?

(a)       Kilovoltage

(b)       Time

(c)       Activity

(d)       Milliamperage

37) The shorter the wavelength of X or gamma rays:

(a)       The higher their energy

(b)       The faster they travel

(c)       The smaller their penetrating power

(d)       The closer they are to becoming radio waves

38) The selection of the proper source-to-film distance is a primary factor in controlling:

(a)       Contrast

(b)       Unsharpness

(c)       Graininess

(d)       Scatter

39) An acceptable quality radiograph should include:

(a)       Proper identification

(b)       Correct penetrameter and visible holes

(c)       Location markers

(d)       All of the above

40) A weld discontinuity which consists of unmelted joint surfaces at the root, and which may be caused by poor fit-up, is called:

(a)       Hot short cracking

(b)       A slag inclusion

(c)       Incomplete penetration

(d)       Burn through